Iodine On My Mind

Health Information

News for your health!
Dr. Sebastiano Venturi

Sebastiano Venturi, M.D.

Sebastiano Venturi, M.D.

via Tre Genghe n. 2;  47864
PENNABILLI (RN) ;  (Italy)

Tel : (+39) 0541 928205.


Servizio di Igiene, ASL n.1, Regione Marche

Via Delle Tre Genghe, 42
47863 Pennabilli (RN) Italy
tel. +39 541 928205


Personal Information

Sebastiano Venturi was born May 2, 1947 in Pennabilli (Pesaro e Urbino), near to the ancient Republic of San Marino, where he frequented the secondary high school. He graduated with full honors in Medicine and Surgery in 1972 at Bologna University. He worked for a year in Department of Surgery of Hospitals of Pesaro and Cattolica (RN) and for one year in the Department of Neurosurgery of Padova University. In 1975 he worked for one year as medical officer in Italian Air Forces. Since 1976 he works for National Health Service in Department of Hygiene & Preventive Medicine. In 1981 he worked two months in Lagos (Nigeria) as hygienist. From 1989 to 2002 he collaborated in clinical, laboratory research and in some congress organization with Department of Endocrinology of Pisa University directed by Prof. Aldo Pinchera. In 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 he was lecturer at the “Thyroid Club” Annual Meeting held in Bologna University and in 2006 in Urbino University. Dr. Venturi is author of more than 60 international and national scientific publications, of one monograph (1978), one book-chapter (1987), one book (1985).

- Venturi S. Preliminari ad uno studio sui rapporti tra cancro gastrico e carenza alimentare
iodica: prospettive specifiche di prevenzione. Editor U.S.L. n.1, Regione Marche;
Novafeltria (PU). 1985. pp. 203

- Venturi S. Studio delle tireopatie nell'Alta Valmarecchia e loro profilassi, Monograph.
Editor Botticelli, Novafeltria (PU), 1978. pp. 34

- Venturi S, Marani L, Magni MA. Syndrome thyro-gastric. Study on the relation between
alimentary iodine deficiency and gastric cancer. In: Ghironzi G, Jackson CE, Schuman BM,
Editors. Epidemiology Prevention and Early Detection of Gastric Cancer. Editor CIC Intern.
Rome, 1987. (Chapter of book)

- Venturi S, Venturi M. Iodio ed Evoluzione. Published in: D. Meringolo, D. Bianchi e B. Bellanova. “Guida alla Epidemiologia e Prevenzione del Gozzo Endemico” , 8 Luglio 2006, Bologna, ASL Ed. Pagg. 11-25 (Chapter of book)

- Thyroid Hormone, Iodine and Human Brain Evolution Venturi S. and Bégin M. E.: "Human Brain Evolution: The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources" by: Cunnane S. and Stewart K. Publisher: John Wiley, 2010. (Chapter of book)

Lectures in:

- International Congress “Influenze ambientali sulla patologia tiroidea” on: “Extrathyroidal Iodine
Deficiency Disorders” held at Pennabilli (PU) (Italy) July 9, 1995

- Congress “Gastric Cancer”: on “Iodine and Gastric Cancer” held at Pennabilli (PU)(Italy)
July 6-7, 1996

- International Congress “Membrane Functions and Antioxidants” with participation of the Nobel
Prize 1993- Dr. Kary Mullis: on “Iodide as Antioxidant” held at Pennabilli (Italy) July 6-7, 2001

- International Congress “ Iodine and Breast Cancer” on “Iodine and Evolution” held at San Leo
(PU) (Italy) Oct. 26, 2002

- “Thyroid Club” Annual Meeting, at Bologna University on: “Iodine, Evolution and
Carcinogenesis”. Feb. 4, 2004

- “Thyroid Club” Annual Meeting, at Bologna University, on: “Role of iodine in Salivary Glands
and Oral Health: a Primitive Antioxidant? “. Febr.16, 2005

- “Thyroid Club” Annual Meeting, at Bologna University, on: “Role of Iodine and other
Antioxidants in the Evolution”. Febr.23, 2006

- “Thyroid Club” Annual Meeting, at Bologna University, on: “Iodine, Goiter and Breast Cancer" and
"Evolution of Dietary Antioxidants”. Febr.6, 2007

- Convegno Nazionale di Endocrinologa Clinica on “Iodio ed Evoluzione”, 8 Luglio 2006
Bentivoglio (Bologna)

- Lecture at Urbino University on “Iodine and Cancer” , Dec. 1, 2006

- Invited to lecture “Iodine and Extra-thyroidal Carcinogenesis” in Bad Hall (Austria) Congress on Iodine, March 10, 2007

- Invited to lecture at "The 2nd Esophageal & Cardiac Cancer Summit" in Beijing, China, October 18-20, 2007

- Lecture at Urbino University on “Iodine, Evolution and Carcinogenesis” , Nov. 14, 2007

-February 29, 2008 -- Kraków, Poland POLISH ACADEMY of SCIENCES, PAN:
Seminary in Nuclear Medicine and Biology "Rola jodu pozatarczycowego w organizmie czlowieka",
on article "Ewolucja diety antyoksydacyjnej" ("Evolution of dietary antioxidant defences")
of Sebastiano Venturi and Mattia Venturi

- Lecture at Perugia University on “Iodio, Evoluzione e Cancro Gastrico” , May. 28, 2008

- Elected as a member of "Italian Thyroid Association: History Section". December 2008, at Aosta in Italian Thyroid Congress

-Kraków, Poland
INSTITUT of NUCLEAR PHYSICS, PAK: Seminary "Rola jodu pozatarczycowego w organizmie czlowieka",
on article "Evolution of dietary antioxidant defences" of Sebastiano Venturi and Mattia Venturi, May 12, 2010

-Hong Kong, March 10-11, 2001, "5th International Functional Food Symposium"
Evolution of Dietary Antioxidants


Dr. Venturi has served as a grant reviewer for the:

the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR), British Columbia's funding agency

and as an ad hoc reviewer for the:

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

International Journal of Cancer

Acta oncologica

Tumor Biology


Surgery Today

European Journal of Nutrition

Endocrine-Related Cancer



Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry

Clinical Nutrition

Areas of interest:

-Iodide as antioxidant -Goitre -Neuropsychological Pathologies -Cretinism -Iodine metabolism
-Immunity -Iodineprophylaxis -Atrophic gastritis -Gastric Cancer -Breast Cancer -Salivary Glands and Oral Health - Terrestrial Life Evolution.

The Wonders of Iodine Could one bottle in your medicine cabinet hold the healing secrets for everything from cysts to toenail fungus?

Excerpts from Jonathan V. Wright, M.D. Nutrition & Healing, 11/1/2002 Newsletter

"Iodine is a basic element, like calcium, zinc, oxygen, etc. The word "iodine" usually refers to two iodine molecules chemically "stuck together," just as the word "oxygen" usually refers to two oxygen molecules "stuck together." Since pure iodine is more reactive to other elements, it's more likely to cause problems, so iodine is usually used as "iodide," a word that refers to one iodine molecule combined with another molecule — often potassium (KI). So, even though they're not technically the same, for simplicity's sake, I've used the terms iodine and SSKI (saturated solution of KI) interchangeably in this article (though always meaning SSKI unless noted otherwise)."

"When we're forced to travel by air, Holly and I drink a few ounces of water with 10 drops of SSKI. The SSKI rapidly accumulates in any and all body secretions, including in the sinuses, where it inhibits or kills bacteria, viruses, and fungi before they can cause an infection."

SSKI is close to 100 percent effective in eliminating bladder infections, but the amount needed is a relatively high dose, so it's important to use it with caution."

"End years of suffering with painful breast and ovarian cysts in as little as three months." "In minor to moderate cases, 6 to 8 drops of SSKI taken daily in a few ounces of water will frequently reduce fibrocystic breast disease to insignificance within three to six months."

"Over the past 30 years, I've also used SSKI to treat at least 30 women - one of them my own daughter - for ovarian cysts. These cysts usually disappear within two to three months with the same quantity of SSKI mentioned above for breast cysts."

"But please do not use this treatment for either of these conditions without monitoring your thyroid function."

"Peyronie's disease occurs when the tissue along the shaft of the penis thickens, causing erections to become increasingly curved and even painful. Applying SSKI to the thickened tissue twice a day over several months can soften it considerably and eventually allow for more normal functioning."

"...hemorrhoids will disappear - sometimes literally overnight - when a mixture of 20 drops of SSKI and 1 ounce of flaxseed oil is applied to them at bedtime."

"Dupuytren's contracture is a condition sort of along the same lines as Peyronie's disease, except in this case, the thickened tissue occurs along one of the tendons in the palm of the hand, pulling the connected finger down. If it progresses far enough, sometimes it's impossible to straighten the finger out at all. Rubbing SSKI into the affected tissue of the palm at least twice a day can "loosen" it and prevent the condition from progressing to the point of causing a deformity or disability."

"This loosening of thickened tissue also works for scars, especially keloids, which are abnormally thick (sometimes up to an inch) scars. Rubbing SSKI into a keloid at least twice daily will ultimately flatten it down to a normal scar. But patience really is a virtue here: It can take many months to a year for particularly bad ones. You can help the treatment go a bit faster if you mix SSKI "50-50" with DMSO."

"Over 30 years ago, two ophthalmologists observed that when they gave patients a combination tablet called "Iodo-niacin" (which contained 120 milligrams of iodide and 15 milligrams of niacin) and instructed them to take it for several months, the supplement actually reversed atherosclerotic clogging of arteries."

"Cysts and stones melt away with just one dose a day."

"Sebaceous cysts are another example of SSKI's ability to dissolve fats and oils. Unlike breast and ovarian cysts, sebaceous cysts contain oily, fatty material and usually appear rather suddenly on the face or in the groin area. But the good news is that you can get rid of them just as quickly as they come on - generally in just a week or two - by rubbing in a mixture of equal parts SSKI and DMSO."

"Parotid duct stones (which block the ducts that carry your saliva) can be dissolved in four to eight months just by drinking a glass of water containing 3 to 4 drops of SSKI each day."

"The SSKI and DMSO mixture doesn't work any faster, but it's just as effective as antifungal drugs - and definitely safer. Rub it on, around, and under the affected toenails. And make sure to wear old socks, because SSKI and other forms of iodine leave an orange-brown stain."

"SSKI can also help clear up vaginal infections. Twenty to 30 drops in water, used in a small douche" once daily for five to 10 days will usually do the job."

"SSKI can help reduce the gas we all get from eating beans. If you soak beans before cooking them, add 1 or 2 drops of SSKI, and let them soak for another hour or so. (Make sure to rinse them and use fresh water for the actual cooking process). You'll be surprised at how much less gas you feel later."



Lecture held at the “Thyroid Club” Annual Meeting of Bologna University, Febr.16, 2005

Iodine in Evolution of Salivary Glands and in Oral Health

Sebastiano Venturi and *Mattia Venturi

Servizio di Igiene, ASL n. 1, Regione Marche, Pennabilli (PU) Italy,

and *Department of Oral Science, University of Bologna, Italy

Corresponding address:

Dr. Sebastiano Venturi - via Tre Genghe n. 2; 61016-Pennabilli (PU), Italy

Tel : (+39) 0541 928205 . E-mail:


Iodine (I) is the richest in electrons of the required elements in the animal diet, and as iodide (I-) enters into the cells. Inorganic iodide is necessary for all living animal cells, but only the vertebrates have the thyroid gland and its iodinated hormones. In humans, the total amount of iodine is about 25-50 mg. About 50-70 % of total iodine is non-hormonal and it is concentrated in extra-thyroidal tissues, where its biological role is still unknown. In 1985, Venturi has hypothesized that iodide might have an ancestral antioxidant function in all I-concentrating cells from primitive marine algae to more recent terrestrial vertebrates [1-5 ]. In these cells iodide acts as an electron donor in the presence of H2O2 and peroxidases. The remaining iodine atom readily iodinates tyrosine, histidine or certain specific lipids, and so, neutralizes its own oxidant power.


When some primitive marine vertebrates started to emerge from the I-rich sea and transferred to I-deficient fresh water of estuaries and rivers and finally land, their diet became I-deficient and also harboured vegetable I-competitors such as nitrates, nitrites, thiocyanates, fluorides and some glycosides. About 400-500 million years ago (M/y/a), primitive Chordates started to use a new efficient follicular organ: the thyroid, as reservoir of iodine. During progressive slow adaptation to terrestrial life, the ancient chordates started to use the primitive, but not antagonized, T4 in order to transport antioxidant iodide into the peripherical cells. The remaining triiodothyronine (T3), the real active hormone, became active in the metamorphosis and thermogenesis for a better adaptation of the organisms to new terrestrial environment (fresh-water, atmosphere, gravity, temperature and diet). The new hormonal action of T3 was made possible by the formation of T3-receptors in the cells of vertebrates. Firstly, about 600-500 million years ago, in primitive Chordata appeared T3-receptors with a metamorphosing action and then, about 250-150 million years ago, in the birds and mammals appeared other T3-receptors with metabolic and thermogenetic actions. In waters the iodine concentration decreases step by step from sea-water to estuary (about 5 mg / L) and source of rivers (less than 0.2 mg / L in some Triassic mountain regions of northern Italy), and in parallel, salt-water fishes (herring) contain about 500-800 mg of iodine per kg compared to fresh-water trout about 20 mg per kg (4, 5). So, in terrestrial I-deficient fresh waters some trout and other salmonids (anadromous migra­tory fishes) may suffer thyroid hypertrophy or related metabolic disorders (4), as do some sharks in captivity. Youson and Sower (6, 7) reported that iodide-concentrating ability of the endostyle of sea lamprey was a critical factor in the evolution of metamorphosis and that the endostyle was replaced by a follicular thyroid, since post-metamorphic animals needed to store iodine following their invasion of freshwater. According to Manzon and Youson (8) in some anadromous migratory fishes (sea lamprey and salmonids), iodine and TH play a role in initiation of metamorphosis, which is induced by the decline in serum of TH. After metamorphosis, when these adult marine fishes die in fresh-water after reproducing, they release their iodides and selenium, and n-3 fatty acids (3), in the environment, where they have a favorable role in food for life and health of native animals, bringing back upstream from the sea to I-deficient areas these essential trace-elements (3, 4).


About 350 M/y/a the dry diet of terrestrial environment stimulated, firstly in anuran amphibians and after in reptiles [9] the primitive tongue and the formation, from I-concentrating ectodermic and endodermic cells of oral mucosa, of the primitive salivary glands, which maintain I-concentrating ability, and are able to solubilizating food substances. In anuran amphibian metamorphosis iodides and thyroxine are the most important factor inducing the spectacular apoptosis of cells of tail, gills, fins and gut. In fact, some important functions of saliva are: cleansing of the oral cavity, solubilization of food substances, bolus formation, facilitation of mastication and swallowing, food and bacterial clearance, dilution of detritus and lubrication of mucosa. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is the proteic transmembrane transporter of iodide into the cells (10). Salivary glands and gastric “iodide-pump” and NIS, are more primitive than the thyroidal ones, so have lower affinity for iodide and does not respond to more phylogenetically recent TSH (Thyrotropin). In pregnant mouse, the fetal oral and gastric mucosa shows iodine-concentrating ability earlier than fetal thyroid [11]. Gastro-salivary clearance and secretions of iodides are an important part of “gastro-intestinal cycle of iodides”, which constitutes about 23 % of iodides pool in the human body, that is important for the overall iodide economy [12]. Mammalians, as cows in their abomasum, have an efficient iodine recycling system via the oral-salivary and gastro-intestinal tract, which conserves iodine and can protect them against low dietary iodine [13-16]. The entero-thyroidal circulation of iodides seems mediated principally by salivary and gastric NIS. In the mammals and humans, dietary iodine is, by NIS, rapidly adsorbed as iodide (I-) from the small intestine. Several mammalian extrathyroidal non-follicular organs share the same gene expression of NIS and particularly salivary glands, stomach mucosa and lactating mammary gland [11, 17]. Thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus and articular, arterial and skeletal systems [11, 18] have I-concentrating ability too. The fact that 131-radioiodine is also detectable in radioautographies of oral mucosa and epidermal fur of rats after 14 days, strongly suggests formation of unknown structural iodocompounds and iodoproteins in some I-concentrating cells [17,18]. Salivary glands and saliva have highest and rapid I-concentrating capacity in the body, via an efficent NIS. According to Banerjee [19, 20] and De SK [21] the salivary glands and gastric mucosa has high ability to concentrate iodides and to form iodocompounds by peroxidases. The fact that mucous cells of some metastases from salivary glands and gastric cancers show I-concentrating ability might be interesting for a possible radiometabolic therapy [22]. The thyroidal and extrathyroidal I-concentration and NIS are inhibited by nitrates, nitrites, fluorides, thiocyanate, some glycosides, salt and also, paradoxically, by an excessive quantity of iodine. Excess of iodides impairs the iodide pump ( and NIS) and the cellular trophism of iodide-concentrating tissues, resulting in functional damage including the well-known Wolff-Chaikoff effect, which occurs in the thyroid even with a dosage just in excess of 2 mg, as well as degenerative and necrotic lesions in the iodide-concentrating tissues (thyroid, salivary gland and gastric mucosa). Inorganic iodine regulates the production of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in isolated thyroid cells, and controls DNA synthesis and cell proliferation [23]; this action might also occur in gastric mucosa and in salivary glands. EGF is a low-molecular-weight polypeptide first purified from the mouse submandibular gland, but since then found in many human tissues including submandibular gland, parotid gland. Salivary EGF plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. The biological effects of salivary EGF, and also esophageal derived EGF, include healing of ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and to physical, chemical and bacterial agents. The multiple functions of saliva relate both to its fluid characteristics and specific components. Banerjee reported iodination “in-vitro” of salivary and gastric proteins by peroxidase enzymes, and reported that salivary gland is one of the richest sources of peroxidases, which are similar to the lactoperoxidases [19, 20]. De SK et al. [21] investigated the role of peroxidase-catalyzed formation of iodotyrosines in submaxillary glands and stomach. Abbey et al. [ 24] reported that women incurred a fourfold-to-fivefold increased risk of a second primary breast cancer subsequent to the first primary salivary gland tumor. In October 7, 1999, the U.S.A. Committee of the House and Senate regarding "Marine Research" reported that " The Committee notes the unusually low incidence of cancer in marine sharks, skates, and rays and encourages basic research …that have the potential to inhibit disease processes in humans." The role of iodine in fishes has not been completely understood, but it has been demonstrated that iodine-deficient fresh-water fishes suffer of higher incidence of infective, parasitic, neoplastic, and atherosclerotic diseases than marine fishes [5].


In our I-deficient district of Montefeltro [1], before iodine-prophylaxis, comparison of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) in 12-year old children in 1980-1985, was 5.2, with a caries component of 89 % (Venturi, unpublished data) compared with the mean Italian values of 3.0 (in1985) and of the I-sufficient Finland of 1.2 (in 1991). Littleton and Frohlich [25] reported that twelve skeletal samples,from the Arabian Gulf have been used to trace differences in diet and subsistence patterns through an analysis of dental pathology. The skeletons date from 3,000 BC to AD 1,500 and cover a variety of geographical locations: off-shore islands, Eastern Arabia, and Oman. The dental conditions analyzed are attrition, caries, and ante-mortem tooth loss (AMTL). Results indicate four basic patterns of dental disease which, while not mutually exclusive, correspond to four basic subsistence patterns. Marine dependency (rich in iodine) in population, is indicated by severe attrition, low caries rates, and a lack of AMTL. The second group of dental diseases-moderate attrition, low rates of caries, and low-moderate rates of AMTL affects populations subsisting on a mixture of pastoralism or fishing and agriculture. Mixed farming populations experienced low-moderate attrition, high rates of caries and abscessing due to caries, and severe AMTL. The final group of dental diseases affects inland populations practicing intensive gardening. These groups experienced slight attrition, high rates of caries, and severe AMTL. Sealy et al. [26] reported that incidences of dental caries are presented for three groups of prehistoric human skeletons from different regions of the Cape Province, South Africa. The isotopic analyses of bone collagen demonstrate the importance of (I-rich) marine foods in the diet and vary through time. The incidence of dental caries ranges from 0% among heavily marine-dependent individuals from the south-western Cape coast, to 17.7% among skeletons from an archaeological site on the south coast. The authors reported that the extremely high incidence of caries in population may be related to lack of fluoride in the water. Also overall cancer incidence in I-rich marine fishes is lower than in fresh-water fishes. Elvery et al. [27] in an anthropological investigation of the Ngaraangbal Aboriginal Tribe's, a hunter-gatherer population, at Broadbeach, Australia, the caries prevalence (0.8%) was very low. These results support the proposal that the Ngaraangbal tribe with a diet that included marine foods. In fact, it is rare to find oral diseases, as well as malignant tumors, in I-rich marine fishes.

Many researchers (28-31) and Wharton [32] reported that immunodeficiency and malnutrition in adolescence and iodine deficiency and dental caries are associated. In 1939, Hardgrove [33] reported that “in his community (Fond du Lac, Wis, USA), since the beginning of administration of iodine to prevent goitre, children have less caries. Iodine seems to increase resistance to caries, retarding the process and reducing its incidence.” Recently Abnet et al. showed a statistical correlation between I-deficient goitre and gastric cancer (34) and between gastric cancer and tooth loss in a Chinese cohort of the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial ( 35, 36).

In conclusion, we believe that the antioxidant, apoptosis-inductor and presumed antitumour activities of iodide might be useful in oral health and in prevention of some extra-thyroidal and salivary gland cancers.


1. Venturi S: Preliminari ad uno studio sui rapporti tra cancro gastrico e carenza alimentare iodica: prospettive specifiche di prevenzione. 1985, Eds USL n. 1, Reg. Marche; Novafeltria (PU), Italy

2. Venturi S, Venturi M: Iodide, thyroid and stomach carcinogenesis: evolutionary story of a primitive antioxidant?  Europ J Endocrinol 1999, 140:371-2

3. Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, Venturi M.  Environmental iodine deficiency: A challenge  to the evolution of terrestrial life? Thyroid. 2000; 10 (8):727-9.

4. Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, Venturi M, Grossi L, Guidi A.Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Path. 2000; 4(1):11-7

5. Venturi S. and Venturi M. “Iodio ed Evoluzione” in “Guida alla Epidemiologia e Prevenzione del Gozzo Endemico”
D. Meringolo, D. Bianchi e B. Bellanova Eds. Atti del Convegno Nazionale di Endocrinologa Clinica.
          8 Luglio 2006 – Bentivoglio (BO) 8 Luglio 2006. Bologna. R. Malagoli Ed. Pagg. 11-25.

6. Youson JH (1997) Is lamprey metamorphosis regulated by thyroid hormones? Amer Zool 37:441–460

7. Youson JH, Sower SA (2001) Theory on the evolutionary history of lamprey metamorphosis: role of reproductive and thyroid axes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 129:337-45

8. Manzon RG, Youson JH (1997) The effects of exogenous thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3), in the presence and absence of potassium perchlorate, on the incidence of metamorphosis and on serum T4 and T3 concentrations in larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.). Gen Comp Endocrinol 106:211-20.

9. Shaham Y & Lewitus Z: Radioiodine metabolism in the thyroid gland of the lizard (Agama Stellio). General and Comparative Endocrinol 1971, 17:142-8

10. Spitzweg C, Joba W, Eisenmenger W, Heufelder AE: Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter gene expression in extrathyroidal tissues and cloning of its complementary deoxyribonucleic acid from salivary gland, mammary gland, and gastric mucosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998, 83:1746-51

11. Ullberg S, Ewaldsson B: Distribution of radio-iodine studied by whole-body autoradiography. Acta Radiologica Therapy Physics Biology 1964, 2 :24-32

12. Hays MT, Solomom DH:  Influence of the gastrointestinal iodide cycle on the early distribution of radioactive Iodide in man. J Clin Invest 1965, 44:117-27

13. Schiff L, Stevens CD, Molle WE, Steinberg H, Kumpe C, and Stewart P: "Gastric (and salivary) excretion of radioiodine in man (preliminary report)." J.Nat. Can. Inst 1947, 7:349-356

14. Wapnir IL, van de Rijn M, Nowels K, Amenta PS, Walton K, Montgomery K, Greco RS, Dohan O, Carrasco N: Immunohistochemical profile of the sodium/iodide symporter in thyroid, breast, and other carcinomas using high density tissue microarrays and conventional sections. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 88:1880-8

15. Miller JK, Swanson EW, Spalding GE: Iodine absorption, excretion, recycling, and tissue distribution in the dairy cow. J Dairy Sci 1975, 58:1578-1593

16. Josefsson M, Grunditz T, Ohlsson T, Ekblad E: Sodium/iodide-symporter: distribution in different mammals and role in entero-thyroid circulation of iodide. Acta Physiol Scand 2002, 175:129-37

17. Pellerin P: La tecnique d’autoradiographie anatomique a la temperature de l’azote liquide.  Path Biol 1961, 9:233-252

18. Brown-Grant K: Extrathyroidal iodide concentrating mechanisms. Physiol Rev 1961, 41:189-213

19. Banerjee RK, Bose AK, Chakraborty TK, De SK, Datta AG: Peroxidase-catalysed iodotyrosine formation in dispersed cells of mouse extrathyroidal tissues. J Endocrinol 1985, 2:159-65

20. Banerjee RK, Datta AG: Salivary peroxidases. Mol Cell Biochem 1986, 70:21-9

21. De SK, Ganguly CK, Chakraborty TK, Bose AK, Banerjee RK: Endocrine control of extrathyroidal peroxidases and iodide metabolism. Acta Endocrinol  1985, 110:383-7

22. Mandell RB, Mandell LZ, Link CJ Jr: Radioisotope concentrator gene therapy using the sodium/iodide symporter gene. Cancer Res 1999, 59:661-8

23. Tramontano D, Veneziani BM, Lombardi A, Villone G, Ingbar SH: Iodine inhibits the proliferation of rat thyroid cells in culture. Endocrinology 1989, 125:984-92

24. Abbey LM, Schwab BH, Landau GC, Perkins ER:  Incidence of second primary breast cancer among patients with a first primary salivary gland tumor. Cancer 1984, 54:1439-42

25. Littleton J, Frohlich B: Fish-eaters and farmers: dental pathology in the Arabian Gulf. Am J Phys Anthropol 1993 Dec, 92:427-47

26. Sealy JC, Patrick MK, Morris AG, Alder D: Diet and dental caries among later stone age inhabitants of the Cape Province, South Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 1992, 88:123-34

27. Elvery MW, Savage NW, Wood WB: Radiographic study of the broadbeach aboriginal dentition.  Am J Phys Anthropol 1998, 107:211-9

28. Weetman AP, Mc Gregor AM, Camphell H, Lazarus JH, Ibberson HK, Hall R: Iodine enhances Ig-G-synthesis by human peripheral blood Iyphocytes in vitro. Acta Endocr  1983, 103:210-15

29. Parisi E, Glick M: Immune suppression and considerations for dental care. Dent Clin North Am. 2003, 47:709-31

30. Enwonwu CO, Sanders C: Nutrition: impact on oral and systemic health. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2001, 22:12-8

31. Schneider LC: The effect of hypothyroidism on caries incidence in adult rats having functioning parathyroid glands. Pharmacol Ther Dent. 1975, 2:43-6

32. Wharton B, Wharton P: Nutrition in adolescence. Nutr Health 1987, 4:195-203

33. Hardgrove T.A: ADA Booklet 1939, "Dental Caries" published in 1939 by the American Dental Association (ADA). (Lynch, Kettering, Gies, eds.)

34. Abnet CC, Kamangar F, Dawsey SM, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Albanes D, Pietinen P, Virtamo J, Taylor PR.  Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma in a cohort of Finnish smokers.  Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun;40(6):681-7.

35. Abnet CC, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, Dong ZW, Taylor PR, Mark SD.  Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of total death and death from upper gastrointestinal cancer, heart disease, and stroke in a Chinese population-based cohort.  Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34 (2):467-74.  2005

36. Abnet CC, Fan JH, Kamangar F, Sun XD, Taylor PR, Ren JS, Mark SD, Zhao P, Fraumeni JF, Jr, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM. Self-reported goiter is associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma in a large population-based Chinese cohort. Int J Cancer 2006;119:1508–10.